The Holy City of Makkah lies inland,
some 73 km east of Jeddah, in the narrow, sandy Valley of Abraham. The land
consists of rugged, rocky (predominantly granite) terrain, with mountain ranges
on three sides (to the west, south and east).
The Holy city is 277 meters (909 feet) above sea level.
There are three main entrances to the Holy City; Al-Mu'allat,
Al-Musfalah and Al-Shubaikah.
Jabal hira, to the northeast, is the site of the cave where
Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, sought peace for contemplation and
where he received the first verse of the
Makkah is the place where the
Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, was born - the place where God's message was first revealed to him and the city to which he returned after the migration to Madinah in 622 AD.
Makkah is the holiest city on earth to Muslims. Five times each day, the world's one billion Muslims, wherever they may be, turn to the Holy City of Makkah to pray. And at least once in their lives, all Muslims who are not prevented by personal circumstance perform the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Makkah. Thus each year the Holy City of Makkah is host to some two million hajjis (pilgrims) from all over the world.
The Holy Mosque in Makkah houses the Ka'aba, in the corner of which is set the Black Stone which marks the starting point for the seven circumambulations of the Holy Mosque which every hajji must complete.
The Holy City is served by the seaport and international airport of Jeddah.